Roman Pochekaev1
  • 1 National Research University Higher School of Economics, 16 Soyuza Pechatnikov Str., Saint Petersburg, 190008, Russian Federation

Inclusion of Bukhara Emirate and Khiva Khanatein to the Customs System of the Russian Empire (1895)

2016. No. 3. P. 172–184 [issue contents]
The paper is devoted to the process of inclusion of two Central-Asian protectorates of the RussianEmpire into the Russian customs-line between 1894 and 1895. The causes of this decision emergedas early as at the beginning of the 19th c.. The process of working on this project as well as discussionsof different Russian ministries, central and regional (Turkestan) authorities, preliminary research andissuing special legal acts are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the procedure of conforming thedecision with Emir of Bukhara and Khan of Khiva as they still remained de-jure independent rulers,and to issuing special own acts on including their states into the Russian customs system. The authorexamines the measures of the Russian authorities on the implementation of customs unification ofthe Russia, Bukhara and Khiva (including the creation of customs outposts, forming customs guardsetc.) and the problems which took place — such as “internal customs-line” of Bukharans and Khivans,increase of contraband goods on the markets of Bukhara, Khiva and Russian Turkestan. Attempts tosolve such problems were ineffective until the fall of the Russian Empire because of insufficient legalbase on relations between the Russian Empire and its Central-Asian protectorates. Finally, the consequencesof including Bukhara and Khiva into the imperial customs-line are evaluated — for Russia,Bukhara and Khiwa as well as for foreign countries (Afghanistan, Persia, British India etc.). Under theauthor’s opinion the integration of Bukhara and Khiva into customs space of the Russian Empire as anexample of predisposition of Eurasian states, regions and peoples to the economic integration whichbecame apparent in different epochs and in different forms. This integration could be considered to acertain extent as prototype of the Customs Union of today. Hence, studying historical experience ofeconomic integration of Eurasia is topical and necessary.
Citation: Pochekaev R. (2016) Vklyuchenie Bukharskogo emirata i Khivinskogo khanstva v tamozhennuyu chertu Rossiyskoy imperii (1895 g.) [Inclusion of Bukhara Emirate and Khiva Khanatein to the Customs System of the Russian Empire (1895)]. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki, no 3, pp. 172-184 (in Russian)
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